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Old 10-21-2010, 05:55 PM
sharif99 sharif99 is offline
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Default complete/incomplete & Transitive/intransitive verbs

salaam alikum, if a brother or sister can please explain if there is a difference and what that difference is between a verb that is complete/incomplete and a verb that is transitive/intransitive or are they both the same?
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Old 10-22-2010, 04:51 PM
Aaishah Aaishah is offline
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Originally Posted by sharif99 View Post
salaam alikum, if a brother or sister can please explain if there is a difference and what that difference is between a verb that is complete/incomplete and a verb that is transitive/intransitive or are they both the same?
Assalaamu ‘alaikum Brother Sharif

This reply looks at the complete and incomplete verb first.

The complete verb differs from the incomplete verb.

They are not the same – though both are described as verbs.

Here are some points to explain :

1) A jumlah fi’liyyah can start with two types of verbs :

Either

i) a complete verb ,

or

ii) an incomplete verb

i) .الْفِعْلُ التَّامُ or,

ii) الْْْْْفِعْلُ النَّاقِصُ

2) Complete verb : It is termed “complete” because the verb and its faa’il alone, is enough to give a complete meaning, and nothing more is needed to finish off the meaning of the sentence.

Incomplete verb: It is termed “incomplete” because the verb and its ism alone, are not enough to give a complete meaning, and a khabar is needed to finish off the meaning of the sentence.

3) In Madinah Book 3, lesson 10 – where the topic is dealt with in detail - our Shaykh gives some examples of “complete verbs” :

دَخَلَ

خَرَجَ

نَامَ

جَلَسَ

-----------

In light of the earlier definition, we see how each of these verbs gives a complete meaning to the reader, with just the verb and the faa’il :

دَخَلَ he entered” = complete meaning.

The Faa’il is Damiir mustatir.

خَرَجَ he went out “ = a complete meaning

نَامَ he slept “ = a complete meaning

جَلَسَ he sat “ = a complete meaning

4) Now compare this with an incomplete verb like : كَانَ or one of her sisters:

كَانَHe was … / It was… “ = incomplete meaning *

(* there are exceptions learnt later on)

لا يَزَالُ " He is still … / It is still… “ = incomplete meaning

لا تَزَالُ ”She is still… / It is still … “ = incomplete meaning

What would complete the meaning of these sentences?

Answer: a khabar (in green) :

كَانَ مَرِيضًا ‘ He was sick ’ = complete meaning

لا يَزَالُ مَرِيضًا ‘ He is still sick ‘ = complete meaning

لاَ تَزَالُ طَالِبَةً ‘She is still a student ‘ = complete meaning

Madinah Book 2, lesson 25 :
deals with “kaana” and her sister “laa yazaalu” which acts like “kaana”.

Madinah Book 3 lesson 10:
deals with the complete and incomplete verb side by side in detail, and introduces more incomplete verbs –i.e. more sisters of “kaana”.

What has preceded, is summed up in our Shaykh’s Arabic-English Dictionary :

Quote relevant part only - pg 220 : ------------

نقص:

فِعْلٌ نَاقِصٌ


Grammatically :

1. …

2. verb which does not take فَاعِلٌ but takes instead اسْمٌ and خَبَرٌ such as كَانَ.

end quote --------

A Glossary of Words Used In :

دُرُوسُ اللُّغَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّةِ لِغَيْرِ النَّاطِقِينَ بِهَا


Arabic-English Dictionary

Dr. V. Abdur Rahim

Conclusion:

* A jumlah fi’liyyah can start with two types of verbs :

A “complete” verb or “incomplete” verb.

* A complete verb needs a Faa’il.

* The Faa’il is sufficient to give the listener a complete meaning.

* For this reason, these verbs are termed “complete”.

* An incomplete verb needs an Ism and Khabar.

* The Ism of an incomplete verb, is in need of a Khabar to complete the meaning.

* For this reason, these verbs are termed, “incomplete”.

* Conversely, we cannot give a complete verb, a Khabar, as it would not make sense to do that.

- Just as we cannot give an incomplete verb, a Faa’il, as it would not make sense to do that.

-----------------------

Hope this has helped you up to here.

Insha Allaah, Part 2 :

The Difference between Transitive and Intransitive verbs.

Wassalaam


Last edited by Aaishah; 10-23-2010 at 01:45 PM.
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Old 10-23-2010, 01:01 AM
sharif99 sharif99 is offline
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barakallaho feekee, for your thorough explaination on complete and incomplete verbs, i will wait for your explanation on transitive and intransitive verbs to get a full understanding of the differences between the two.
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Old 10-25-2010, 11:36 AM
Aaishah Aaishah is offline
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Originally Posted by sharif99 View Post
barakallaho feekee, for your thorough explaination on complete and incomplete verbs, i will wait for your explanation on transitive and intransitive verbs to get a full understanding of the differences between the two.
Part 2 :

The Difference Between Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Assalaamu ‘alaikum Brother,

The first step to understanding the difference, is to understand the lexical and grammatical definitions of “transitive” and “intransitive” (in Arabic).

The grammatical meanings are usually linked to the lexical ones.

This makes it easy to understand all Arabic terms – their natures, roles, effects etc - and shows the logic of having such names.

Our Shaykh's Madinah Course Dictionary is an essential resource :

Quote: ----------------

(عدو

تَعَدَّى تَعَدِّياً v


1. to overstep, traverse, go beyond

2. grammatically : to be transitive.


A transitive verb is one in which the action goes beyond the subject, and affects the object.


E.g.,

ضَرَبَ بِلاَلٌ عَلِيّـاً


‘ Bilaal hit Ali ‘

In the intransitive verb, on the other hand, the action does not go beyond the subject.

E.g.,


نَامَ بِلاَلٌ


‘ Bilaal slept ’ .

-----------------

فِعْلٌ مُتَعَدٍّ

transitive verb, (as opposed to لاَزِمٌ).

End quote-------------

Pg’s 140-141 :

A Glossary of Words Used In :

دُرُوسُ اللُّغَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّةِ لِغَيْرِ النَّاطِقِينَ بِهَا


Arabic-English Dictionary

Dr. V. Abdur Rahim


-------------------------

Thus :

A Transitive verb :


The Faa’il needs a maf’uul bi-hii to complete the meaning of the sentence.

ضَرَبَ بِلاَلٌ


‘ Bilaal hit … ‘ = incomplete meaning.

What would complete meaning of this sentence?

Answer : a maf’uul bi-hii (direct object):

ضَرَبَ بِلاَلٌ عَلِيّـاً


‘ Bilaal hit Ali ‘ = complete meaning.

So a transitive verb needs:

fi'l + faa’il + maf’uul bi-hii

An Intransitive verb :

The Faa’il does not need a maf’uul bi-hii to complete the meaning of the sentence.

نَامَ بِلاَلٌ


‘ Bilaal slept ’ . = complete meaning.

نَامَ ’he slept’ = complete meaning.

So an intransitive verb needs:

fi'l + faa’il only * .

( *
Generally speaking. But sometimes they need an addition . The details are learnt in Book 3.)

The terms 'transitive' and 'intransitive verbs', are first introduced in Madinah Book 3, Key to lesson 18. This is after the student has already had copious practice of constructing and analysing a jumlah fi'liyyah in previous lessons.

Here are some extracts from Madinah Book 3, Key to lesson 18:

Quote: ----------------

Verbs are either transitive or intransitive.

الْفِعْلُ الْمُتَعَدِّي
:

A transitive verb needs a subject which does the action, and an object which is affected by the action.

e.g.,

قَتَلَ الْجُنْدِيُّ الْجَاسُوسَ
.

‘ The soldier killed the spy ‘ .

Here the soldier did the killing, so the word الْجُنْدِيُّ is the faa’il (subject).

And the one affected by the killing is the spy.

So the word الْجَاسُوسَ is the maf’ul bi-hii (the object).


الْفِعْلُ اللاَّزِمُ :


An intransitive verb needs only a subject which does the action.

Its action is confined to the subject, and does not affect others.

e.g.,

فَرِحَ الْمُدَرِّسُ
.

‘the teacher was happy’

خَرَجَ الطُّلاَّبُ.

‘ the students went out ‘.

End quote--------------

Ref: Madinah Book 3, Key to lesson 18.

Finally, here are some more examples of transitive and intransitive verbs taken from the exercises in Madinah Book 3 - lesson 18, and their answers are taken from the Madinah Solutions - part 3, lesson 18:

(Examples of The Intransitive Verb : )الْفِعْلُ اللاَّزِمُ :

ضَحِكَ الطُّلاَّبُ.

رَجَعَ أَبِي الْبَارِحَةَ.

اجْلِسْ هُنَا.

نَامَ الطِّفْلُ.

تَعِبَ الْعُمَّالُ.


الْفِعْلُ الْمُتَعَدِّي (Examples of The Transitive Verb) :

يَشْرَحُ الْمُدَرِّسُ الدَّرْسَ

حَفِظْتُ الْقُرْآنَ

اِفْتَحِْ الْبَابَ.

لَمْ آكُلْ شَيْئاً.

نَعْبُدُ اللهَ وَلاَ نُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً


Hope this benefits you and all the students of Arabic inshaa Allaah.

Wassalaam


Last edited by Aaishah; 10-26-2010 at 12:59 PM.
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  #5  
Old 10-27-2010, 10:10 AM
sharif99 sharif99 is offline
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may Allah SWT reward you for your help in answering my question. thank you
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