I have been unable to understand how incomplete verbs are different from their complete counterparts;taking the example from the book 3 key (Dars 10):
Tafika bilalun yaktubu= Bilal began to write
Cant we say that Bilal is the Fai'l here like in any other Jumla Faylia?
Assalaamu ‘alaikum Brother Shahid,
I hope these points will help :
1) A jumlah fi’liyyah can start with two types of verbs :
a) a complete verb , or
b) an incomplete verb :
a) .الْفِعْلُ التَّامُّ or,
b) الْْْْْفِعْلُ النَّاقِصُ
- just as our respected Shaykh mentions in Madinah Book 3, Key to dars 10.
2) These terms – “complete verb” / “incomplete verb” are very relevant terms and suit the nature of these verbs:
Complete verb : It is termed “complete” because the verb alone (with its faa' il), is enough to give a complete meaning, and nothing more is needed to finish off the meaning of the sentence.
Incomplete verb: It is termed “incomplete” because the verb alone, is not enough to give a complete meaning, and a khabar is needed to finish off the meaning of the sentence.
3) In the Key to dars 10, our Shaykh gives these examples of “complete verbs” :
They are complete because the verb + its Faa’il - which is a hidden pronoun in each case - gives a complete meaning :
دَخَلَ “he entered” = complete meaning.
خَرَجَ “ he went out “ = a complete meaning
نَامَ “ he slept “ = a complete meaning
جَلَسَ “ he sat “ = a complete meaning
4) But compare the above, with an incomplete verb like : كَانَ
كَانَ “ he was “ = incomplete meaning (*)
طَفِقَ “he began to “ = incomplete meaning
كَانَ بِلاَلٌ “Bilaal was “ = incomplete meaning
طَفِقَ بِلاَلٌ “Bilaal began to “ = incomplete meaning
5) Knowing 4), it is no surprise to discover that طَفِقَ is a family-relation and sister of : كَانَ
Quote : -------
طَفِقَ يَفْعَلُ (sister of كَانَ)
‘to begin to do’
طَفِقَ الْْوَلَدُ يَبْكِي
‘the boy began to cry’
end quote ---------
pg 132 “ A Glossary of Words [Arabic Terms/Vocabulary] Used In :
دُرُوسُ اللُّغَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّةِ لِغَيْرِ النَّاطِقِينَ بِهَا
Dr. V. Abdur Rahim
6) So كَانَ and طَفِقَ are “incomplete verbs” (or “weak verbs”).
The sentence will not be complete, nor have full-strength of meaning, without an ism and khabar. The verb alone, is not enough to give a full meaning :
كَانَ “He was / it was “
طَفِقَ “ He began to”
Compare again to the complete verb whose verb + faa’il alone, gives a full meaning :
خَرَجَ “ he went out “ (faa'il = Damiir mustatirun taqdiiru-huu : huwa)
7) To complete the meaning of كَانَ and طَفِقَ we need a khabar :
a) كَانَ بِلاَلٌ مَرِيضاً “Bilaal was sick.”
b) طَفِقَ بِلاَلٌ يَكْتُبُ “Bilaal began to write.”
c) طَفِقَ بِلاَلٌ يَقْرَأُ ” Bilaal began to read”
8) An important difference is to be noted with the khabar of طَفِقَ : Its khabar is always a jumlah fi’liyyah whose verb is always muDaari ' :
Rule for khabar of طَفِقَ : quote :--------
“The verb in the khabar should be muDaari '.
End quote ------
Ref : Madinah Book 3, key to lesson 10.
This rule is important. It shows a difference between kaana and her sister Tafiqa.
In conclusion, Bilaal is not the faa’il in a sentence starting with طَفِقَ just as he is not the faa’il in a sentence starting with كَانَ - even though both sentences are jumlah fi’liyyah.
But – as we learnt – a fi’liyyah can start with two types of verbs – either a “complete” or “incomplete” verb.
A complete verb needs a Faa’il.
An incomplete verb needs an ism and khabar.
The khabar of طَفِقَ has a special rule : it is always a verb in the muDaari '.
There is a lot more practice of these types of verbs throughout the Madinah Course and also in our Shaykh’s Hadiith collections which I have used to help me write this reply.
TWO ADDITIONAL BENEFITS
(جَعَلُوا يَضْرِبُونَهُ) :
(جَعَلَ يَفْعَلُ كَذَا) :
أَيْ شَرَعَ يَفْعَلُهُ
أَخَذَ يَفْعَلُ كَذَا
وَطَفِقَ يَفْْْعَلُ كَذَا.
تَعْمَلُ هَذِهِ الأَفْعَالُ الثَّلاَثَةُ عَمَلَ (كَانَ) غَيْرَ أَنَّ خَبَرَهَا يَجِبُ أَنْْْ يَكُونَ جُمْلَةً فِعْلِيَّةً فِعْلُهَا مُضَارِعٌ.
وَتُسَمَّى هَذِهِ الأَفْعَالُ : أَفْعَالَ الشُّرُوعِ.
End quote -------
Pg 81 :
نُصُوصٌ مِنَ الْحَدِيثِ النَّبَوِيِّ الشَّرِيفِ
الدكتورُ ف. عبدُ الرحيمِ
(Re-print Aug 2009 CE)
B) * Students will learn from our Shaykh's latest Hadiith book of the versatility of the verb kaana and how it can also have a faa'il and be considered "complete" with certain meanings. (It is very easy).
Ref: "Both These Lights Emanate From The Same Niche
- Classical Hadiith story
- With Lexical and Grammatical Notes
- Hadiith of Umm Salamah - radiallaahu 'anhaa"
by Shaykh Dr. V. Abdur Rahim
May Allaah reward our respected Shaykh for these unique works, and preserve his life serving His Cause.
Last edited by Aaishah; 09-17-2010 at 12:34 PM.
Your comprehensive reply has clarified my concept in terms of how to identify an incomplete verb. But i want to ask why Bilal cant be considered as a Fai'l even in the incomplete sentence.
'Bilal began'... Bilal is performing an action even though incomplete.
Zaadaka Allahu Ilman sister Aisha
Jazak Alllah khair..
Last edited by Shahid M ali; 09-15-2010 at 06:28 PM.
Assalaamu ‘alaikum Brother Shahid,
The reason is because there cannot be a Faa’il for a verb which does not produce a “complete” action.
A verb which cannot produce a “complete” action is in a different category to a verb which can produce a “complete” action. Only a “complete” verb is one whose doer is described in Arabic as a faa’il.
This is from the wisdom and insight of Arabic.
Similarly, Arabic does not describe the doer of a “weak” verb as a faa’il, but an ism. And an ism requires information (khabar) to be conveyed in order to complete the meaning.
From another angle, if we say Bilaal is faa’il of Tafiqa, then we have no logical analysis for the part : “ yaktubu ”. It is not ma’fuul bi-hii, it is not a Zarf, it is not Haal. It ends up being a redundant sentence at the end.
That is my understanding along with the discussion held yesterday.
I pray that you find it beneficial.
Last edited by Aaishah; 09-17-2010 at 12:35 PM.