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samina
04-07-2010, 04:16 AM
I am sorry if I am asking really simple questions, (by the way now i can see now that the page number of the handouts are not necessarily the order in which they are referenced in the dvd's)
Can someone help me to understand the following:

I am on DVD02-partA3, (book 1 page 25 ex 3) where br Asif if giving lots of examples about khraja and zahaba.
If you change al-mudarisu in the sentence to Muhammed, the sentence becomes
Khraja Muhammadun (ok I understand that)
then if you change it to Hamid, the sentence becomes
Khraja Hamid (what no dun at the end?)
then if you change it to Dr, the sentence becomes
KhrajaT tabebu (I understand why tabebu is tabebu, but why is khraja khrahaT as this indicates feminine (from heya)?)

When changing the sentence to engineer it remains karaja,
but when changing the sentence to merchant, karakjaT applies, why?

thanks again

sinimmar
04-07-2010, 10:16 AM
SalamuAllahi Aleykum;

Like in Khraja Muhammadun, the true one is: Khraja Hamidun.

About tabebu:

The "t" in there isn't ت but it is ط. The first letter of الطبيب. The letter ط one of the solar letters so the ل in the ال isn't pronounced. So it's heard as if there's a feminine ت.

In the "merchant" the same thing happens. The ت doesn't belong to the خرج.

في أمان الله

samina
04-07-2010, 10:32 AM
ah yes I can see......

Jazakumullahu khairan,

Abdul salaam
05-12-2010, 04:02 AM
Assalaam aliyjum

I would like to ask a question about analysis.

In lesson 11 (baithee), in the 5th line (book downloaded from fatwa online), it says

غُرْفةِ أَخِي كِبِيْرِةٌ وَغُرْفةِ أُخْتِي صَغِيرِةٌ

here kabeerathun is a na'ath or a khabar, like wise sageerathun, a na'ath or a khabar

Abdul salaam
05-12-2010, 04:04 AM
sorry its غُرْفةُ

irf2k
05-12-2010, 10:00 PM
Assalamu Alaikum
It should be غُرْفَةُ in both places, i.e., it should be with one dammah only because in mubtadah mudaf.
Th kabitatun and saguiratun are khabar and they should be marfu with tanween dammah.

غُرْفةُ أَخِي كِبِيْرِةٌ وَغُرْفةُ أُخْتِي صَغِيرِةٌ

I hope this helps.
Wasalam

Abdul salaam
05-13-2010, 03:57 AM
Assalaam alikum

Jazaakallu hairan

In the vedios, as a remeber its on DVD5, part B3 our bro said kabeerathun and sageerathun is na,ath on that particular sentence.

i think its just a minor mistake.

I would like to know how can i get the arabic font which you wrote. So i can ask more questions.

irf2k
05-15-2010, 08:00 AM
Wasalam
The font I used is Traditional Arabic. (TRADO.ttf)
Try to google. If you can't find it, send me your email to admin and I'll get it to you.
Wasalam

Abdul salaam
05-24-2010, 03:47 AM
Assalam aliakum

i have a another question about analysis
could you please analys this

بَعْضُهُمْ مِنَ الصِيْن وَ بَعْضُهُمْ مِنَ الْيَابَان

Aaishah
05-28-2010, 11:56 PM
Assalam aliakum

i have a another question about analysis
could you please analys this

بَعْضُهُمْ مِنَ الصِيْن وَ بَعْضُهُمْ مِنَ الْيَابَان

Assalamu ‘alaikum Brother Abdul Salaam

بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ الصِّينِ ... :

Here is the analysis (i'raab) in simple point-form.

But I am going to use some quite advanced terms in the analysis which are covered much later in the course. However, I am going to convey some of them here because they are actually very simple and logical. This will give you more grammatical insight into the above sentence and those like it, inshaa Allaah.

To help me write this reply, I have extensively used our Shaykh’s excellent Arabic-English Dictionary " A Glossary of Words Used in Duruus al-Lughah al-'Arabiyyah li-ghayri l-naatiqiina bi-haa" " . Our Shaykh has authored this especially for students of the Madinah Arabic Course.

I'raab in simple point-form :

بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ الصِّينِ ... :

بَعْضُ :

الْمُبْتَدَأُ، مَرْفُوعٌ ، وَعَلاَمَةُ رَفعِهِ : ضَمَّةٌ ظَاهِرَةٌ في آخِرِهِ وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ.

"ba'Du" is a noun.

It is the mubtada' here.

It is marfuu ' .

The sign that it is marfuu is a clear dammah on the end of it - i.e. it has the clear ' u ' sound of a primary dammah ending.

It is also mudaaf.

Every mudaaf has a mudaaf ilayhi.

Knowing this, we can say with confidence that the noun following it is : mudaaf ilayhi.

هُمْ :

الْْمُضَافُ إِلَيْهِ ، في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ.

"hum" is a pronoun. Pronouns are classified under asmaa ("nouns") in Arabic. Here, it is the mudaaf ilayhi.

Madinah Book 1 teaches us that the mudaaf ilayhi is majruur.

But this word is not majruur.

There is no clear and manifest kasrah on the end of it - i.e. no “ i ” sound at the end which is the sound of a primary kasrah ending.

Why does it have no kasrah?

Answer : Because it is a word that cannot take a kasrah since it is mabniyy.

What is mabniyy ?Mabniyy means the end harakah of the word, is fixed, and will not change to a fathah, a dammah or kasrah in any situation no matter what grammatical role it plays. It stays solidly fixed on one ending.

In this case, it is fixed on a sukuun here :

هُمْ


Being solidly fixed on a sukuun, how can we describe its grammatical role since it is still the mudaaf ilayhi ?

In this case, in the analysis we say :

في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ ، الْمُضَافُ إلَيْهِ.

In the position of jarr : mudaaf ilayhi.

في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ :

This terminology occurs very frequently in sentence analysis and simply means :

A noun that is sitting in the ‘ seat ’ or place of a majruur noun.

Or :

A noun in the position of a majruur noun.

Or :

A noun occupying the place of a majruur noun.

Knowing this, let us substitute the above pronoun “ hum ” with a majruur noun - i.e. whose ending has a clear kasrah because it can change to a kasrah (or to a fathah and dammah) - and we will see this point conversely :

بَعْضُ الطُّلاَّبِ

بَعْضُ الأَوْلاَدِ

بَعْضُ الإِخْوَانِ


Now bring back the pronoun "hum" and put it in the same place as each of the majruur nouns above (in red) :

بَعْضُهُمْ

بَعْضُهُمْ

بَعْضُهُمْ

So each time, “ hum ” has taken the place of the majruur’ noun.

Thus, it is in the place of a majruur’ noun.

This is what is meant, and termed in Arabic:

في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ .

' in the place of jarr'.

This understanding, terminology and analysis, is applied accordingly to a noun, even to a jumlah and shibhu jumlah, that is in the place of raf or nasb too.

So :

هُمْ is :

في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ ، الْمُضَافُ إلَيْهِ.

----------

So far, we have identified a mubtada.

Next, we need to look for its pair.

What is a mubtada paired with ?

Answer : a khabar.

(Note : The mubtada-khabar pair, do not need to occur side by side in a sentence. But they are still a pair in the sense that when you have one, you need the other in order to complete the meaning and have a beneficial sentence. This is the rule but there are exceptions.)

So the khabar is going to complete the meaning of the sentence for us.

Assume the speaker said to us :

بَعْضُهُمْ ... :

"Some of them..."

- and then stopped and said nothing more.

We - the listener - will think :

What about "some of them" ?

Are you trying to give me some information?

Then kindly continue and finish your sentence because as it stands, I do not know what you wish to say about them.

But we will fully understand when the speaker gives us the information :

مِنْ الصِّينِ :


"...are from China".

This then, is the khabar .

The khabar is marfuu’.

But this khabar is not marfuu.

Why? Because this khabar is not a single noun or singular (mufrad).

Rather, the khabar here is expressing itself in the form of a :

shibhu jumlah.

The shibhu jumlah is made up of a harfu jarr and its ism majruur.

"min" is the harfu jarr

"as-Siin" is itsism majruur.

And the entire shibhu jumlah above, is occupying the place of a marfuu' noun that would be al-khabar.

Therefore we say the i'raab of مِنْ الصِّينِ is :

في مَحَلِّ رَفْعٍ :

الْْخَبَرُ.

In the place of raf’, the khabar.

If we swap it for a marfuu’ noun we would say :

Al-khabar, marfuu’.

But if we swap it back to a shibhu jumlah, we say :

Al-khabar, fii mahalli raf’.

- Because it took the same position and place again of a marfuu noun.

--------------------

I hope you see how sentence analysis in Arabic, is very logical and straight-forward in reality.

The terminology (in my understanding) is merely an expression of what we see happening (or do not see happening) with the physical eye, or what logic necessitates. That makes Arabic grammar, logical and obvious to understand.

I hope this reply was clear and helpful.

May Allaah give us a clear understanding of the language of the Noble Qur’aan, and reward our Shaykh Dr. Abdur Rahim greatly on our behalf.

Wallaahu ‘a’lam.

Wassalaam

Abdul salaam
06-13-2010, 03:45 AM
Assalaam alikum
this is advance, but its excellent

jazzkallah Khair

Abdul salaam
06-13-2010, 04:41 AM
السّلام عليكم
هُمْ (they): this is a ضَمِيْر مُنْفَصِلٌ and ـهُمْ (thir): this is a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ right?
كِتَابُهُمْ (their book): here a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ is used. Right?
كِتَابُ هُمْ (they book): here a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ is used. Right?, but not a proper sentence
مَعَهُمْ (is the meaning “with them” or “with their”): what kind of ضَمِيْرُ is this?

Please explain in detail.

The answer to my earlier question is very good

Abdul salaam
06-14-2010, 04:13 AM
السّلام عليكم

previously i wrote a mistake, sorry for that , this is the correct one

هُمْ (they): this is a ضَمِيْر مُنْفَصِلٌ and ـهُمْ (their): this is a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ right?
كِتَابُهُمْ (their book): here a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ is used. Right?
كِتَابُ هُمْ (they book): here a ضَمِيْرُ مُنْفَصِلٌ is used. Right?, but not a proper sentence
مَعَهُمْ (is the meaning “with them” or “with their”): what kind of ضَمِيْرُ is this?
Please explain in detail.

The answer to my earlier question is very good

Aaishah
06-14-2010, 06:36 PM
وعليكم السلام ورحمةُ اللهِ

The following extracts from Madinah Book 1 - lesson 13, and from our Shaykh Dr. Abdur Rahim’s excellent Arabic-English Dictionary - which he has authored especially for the Madinah Course students - will answer your questions, and give you the clarity needed inshaa Allaah.

I will quote only what is relevant to the question.

Note : If we look attentively at :

a) the colours I have used - which are colour-coded to highlight the three meanings, for one and the same form of the Arabic pronoun : هُمْ , and

b) look at whether this Damiir is directly attached to another word, or is it standing independently,

- then the answer to your questions will become more apparent inshaa Allaah.


Quote, Madinah Book 1 Key to Lesson 13A -----------------------

“The plural of هُوَ “he” is :

هُمْ “ they ” (masculine).

Unlike the singular هُوَ , the plural هُمْ is used to refer only to human beings.

E.g.


هُوَ مُدَرِّسٌ.

“He is a teacher.”


هُمْ مُدَرِّسُونَ.

“They are teachers”.

The plural of ـهُ ( “ his ” ) is ـهُمْ( “ their” ), E.g.

أَيْنَ بَيْتُهُمْ ؟

“Where is their house? ”

Note that the words for “they” and “their” have the same form (هُمْ).


End quote 1----------------------

Quote 2 -------------------------

ضَمِيرٌ مُنْفَصِلٌ :

Independent pronoun, such as :

هُوَ، أَنْتَ، نَحْنُ (ضَمَائِرُ رَفْْْعٍ)

ضَمِيرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ :

Attached pronoun such as ـهُ in مِنْهُ.

End quote------------------------------

Reference , pg 128 from :

“A Glossary of Words Used in

دروسُ اللغةِ العربيةِ لغيرِ الناطقين بِهَا:

Arabic-English Dictionary

By Dr. V. Abdur Rahim

------------------------------------------------------------

So as is apparent from the above examples, when this pronoun هُمْ stands alone - independent of any word attached to it, then it is translated as “they”.

In this case, it is an independent pronoun, ضَمِيرٌ مُنْفَصِلٌ

But when this same pronoun هُمْ is attached to another word, and when the meaning indicates it refers to the plural of "his", then it is translated as “their”.

In this case, it is an attached pronoun, ضَمِيرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ :

Important Note : "Hum" can also be attached to a word, but be translated as "them". This is when the meaning does not signify the plural of the word "his", but something else. This point will be clear when we get to the meaning of "ma'a-hum".

So the form of this Damiir is one, but it differs in meaning according to whether its form is :

Independent or Attached.

This is why our Shaykh typed the two forms slightly differently.

He typed the attached form, with a “ tail ” at the start of it to show it is to be joined to a noun before it :

ـهُمْ( “ their” ),

But our Shaykh did not type any such “ tail ” on the independent form, showing its independence :

هُمْ “ they ” (masculine).

*********

هُمْ مُدَرِّسُونَ

“Hum” is standing independent of any word attached to it.

So here, "hum" is a Damiir munfaSilun. (independent pronoun).

**********

هُمْ تُجَّارٌ.

“Hum” is standing independent of any word attached to it.

So here, it is a Damiir munfaSilun (independent pronoun).

**********

بَيْتُهُمْ

“Hum” is attached to the word “bayt”.

So here, it is Damiir muttaSilun (attached pronoun).


************

كِتَابُهُمْ

“Hum” is attached to the word “kitaab”.

So here, it is Damiir muttaSilun (attached pronoun).


***********

كِتَابُ هُمْ

This is not correct grammatically since what you wish to say is “their book”.

We must attach “hum” to the word “kitaab” to be grammatically correct and to make sense.

If we wish to use the independent form “hum”, then this reflects a different meaning and the other form of “hum”.

In this case, we would need to bring a khabar for “hum” (not bring an attached noun.)

e.g.

هُمْ مُدَرِّسُونَ.

“They are teachers”.

"hum" is the mubtada'

"mudarrisuuna" is the khabar.


******

مَعَهُمْ :

Means : “with them”.

"ma'a" means "with".

So the meaning of "hum" here, is cear from the context.

“Hum” is attached to the noun “ma’a”.

So here, “hum” is a Damiir muttaSilun (attached pronoun).

Hope this has helped you.

I hope everyone sees how logical Arabic is. Its grammar is clear and its terminology is simple, plain and obvious.

Wassalaam

Abdul salaam
06-15-2010, 04:14 AM
السّلام عليكم

This is what is understood from your answer, please correct me if I am wrong

So هُمْ may also have the meaning "they" and "their" depending with which word is used with it. And the Arabic word for "they" (هُمْ) may also be a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ. right?

jazakallah hair

Aaishah
06-15-2010, 04:05 PM
السّلام عليكم

This is what is understood from your answer, please correct me if I am wrong

So هُمْ may also have the meaning "they" and "their" depending with which word is used with it. And the Arabic word for "they" (هُمْ) may also be a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ. right?

jazakallah hair

wa 'alaykumus salaam

هُمْ

The independent form is always translated as :

"they" .

But the attached form differs in meaning according to what word is linked to it.

So in :

a) "kitaabu-hu" / "kitaabu-hum" :

= "his book" / their book".

b) "baytu-hu" / "baytu-hum" :

= "his house" / "their house".

- these phrases show that "hum" reflects the plural of the word "hu" in Arabic, meaning "his".

When this is the case, the translation of the pronoun "hum" here, is always:

"their". (masculine)

But when the same Damiir "hum" is attached to a word which is not meant to reflect the plural of the pronoun "hu" ("his"), then we do not translate the pronoun "hum". as "their".

The meaning is according to the word attached to it :

So in e.g.

ma'a-hum = "with them"

min-hum = "from them."

bayna-hum = "between them".

kullu-hum = "all of them".

- the translation of "hum" in these types of phrases is :

"them".

**********

And the Arabic word for "they" (هُمْ) may also be a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ. right?

"They" is always the translation of the Damiir munfaSilun (the independent form of "hum").

e.g. hum mudarrisuuna

"They are teachers".

So "they" will always mean there is the Damiir munfaSilun (independent pronoun) in the sentence, not the Damiir muttaSilun (attached form).

But the same independent form can appear in another part of the sentence/another sentence, as an attached form. That is right. And it is translated accordingly.

As you get more practice of this in the Madinah Course, you will recognise the meanings easily insha Allaah.

Wassalaam

Abdul salaam
06-16-2010, 03:59 AM
السّلام عليكم

So the Arabic word for "them" (هُمْ) may also be a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ right?

I think i understood now Insha allah.

now have another question.
Its about the 18th lesson
In that lesson thamreen two sentence 6 :it says صلاة الفَجْر ركْعتان
I could not do analysis for this.
I think the meaning is “the dawn prayer have two rakah.
If so, صلاة is mubthadhaa, الفَجْر is mudhaaf ilaihi, and ركْعتان is khabar. I am right.

Also there are many sentences this lesson which I find difficulty in translating. I will ask about it later insha allah.

jazakallah khair for all the answers.

adilbarra
06-16-2010, 04:23 AM
السّلام عليكم

So the Arabic word for "them" (هُمْ) may also be a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ right?

I think i understood now Insha allah.

now have another question.
Its about the 18th lesson
In that lesson thamreen two sentence 6 :it says صلاة الفَجْر ركْعتان
I could not do analysis for this.
I think the meaning is “the dawn prayer have two rakah.
If so, صلاة is mubthadhaa, الفَجْر is mudhaaf ilaihi, and ركْعتان is khabar. I am right.

Also there are many sentences this lesson which I find difficulty in translating. I will ask about it later insha allah.

jazakallah khair for all the answers.

BISMIALLAAH
wa alayka assalam Abdu Als-Salam;

As you know my beloved brother in faith all good comes from Allaah; the Mighty and Majestic and all the praises soleley belong to him; may he be Glorfied and Exalted.

I am truly very happy to see that you are understanding the concepts in each lesson and are continuosly asking intelligent questions so you can further your knowledge and vasten your understanding of the Glorious Qur'an. In addition, everything that you have written is correct; alhamdu liAllaah. Finally, (رَكَعْتَاْنِ) is the predicate/news of the above nominal sentence; so you are correct. It's sign of (مَرْفُوْعٌ) is the (ن) , and the alif is (أَاِف أامُثَني{dual alif}). I hope my small explanation further assisted your brilliant self-answered question my brother in creed.

Finally, I hope the above brief information clarifies your reasonable question. May Allaahu ta'ala reward: Brother Fuad Abdu ArRaheem, Brother Asif Mehrali, and the institute of the language of the Glorious Qur'an. May Allaahu ta'ala allow you to master the: elequent, blessed, and honoured langauge of the Glorious Qur'an, and send many peace and blessings unto our beloved Prophet Muhammad; baraka Allaahu feek.

Allaah knows best-:)

Abdul salaam
06-16-2010, 05:17 PM
السّلام عليكم

Jasakallah hairan

May Allah bless and reward all the persons who are involved directly and indirectly in the teaching of Arabic in institute of the language of the Glorious Qur'an, www.lqtoronto.com and its forum. Im gaining a lot inshallah.
Also Jasakallah hairan for the quick respond

Now I said that there are lost of sentence which I find difficulty in translation in lesson 18.

كَمْ أَخًا لَكَ يَا مُحَمَدٌ how many brothers do you have oh Muhamed (I know the translation)
لِي أَخٌ وَاحِدٌ I have one bother. (I know the translation)
وَكَمْ أُخْتًا لَكَ؟ and how many sisters do yo have
لِي أُخْتَانِ I have two sisters
So far Im able to translate to a proper English sentence. Insha ahallah
كَمْ عَجَلَةً لِلدَّرَاجَةِ يَاحَامِدُ how many wheels the bike have oh mohamed.(this translation sounds little odd but I think ok.
لَهَا عَجَلَتَانِ it has two wheel (this is ok)

Now the following sentence I have doubt

كَمْ عِيْدًا فِي السَّنَةِ يَا زَكَرِيَّا how many eid in the year oh zakariyya
فِي السَّنَةِ عِيْدَانِ in the year two eid (this does not sound nice, is this translation correct).
هُمَا عِيْدُ الفِطْرِ وَعِيْدُ الأَضْحَى those two are fithr eid and alhaa eid (this is ok)
كَمْ نَافِذَةً فِي غُرْفَتِكَ يَا إِسْمَاعِيْل how many widows in your room oh ismaeel. ((this also does not sound nice, is this translation also correct).
فِيْهَا نَافِذَتَانِ in it two windows (this also odd, it this translation correct)

Please explain

Aaishah
06-16-2010, 06:03 PM
السّلام عليكم

So the Arabic word for "them" (هُمْ) may also be a ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ right?

I think i understood now Insha allah.



wa ‘alaykumus salaam Brother Abdul Salaam,

Examples are always helpful in illustrating what is meant in an explanation.

Here are some simple and very helpful examples extracted from Madinah Book 1, illustrating what was meant in all the preceding explanations and showing the meaning of هُمْ as a :

ضَمِيرٌ مُنْفَصِلٌ

Or as a :

ضَمِيْرُ مُتَّصِلٌ

Each takes one of three meanings accordingly:

“They” or

“Their” or

“Them”.

Ref. Extracts from Conversation and Arabic side of Lesson 13, Madinah Book 1 :

(I have given a rough translation of each sentence.)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

الضَّمِيرُ الْْْمُنْفَصِلُ: A.

(The independent pronoun):

هُمْ طُلاَّبٌ جُدُدٌ.

They are new students.


هُمْ مِنْ أَمْرِيكا.

They are from America.


هُمْ زُمَلاَئِي.

They are my classmates.


هُمْ فِي فَصْلِي.

They are in my class.


هُمْ مُجْتَهِدُونَ.

They are hardworking.


هُمْ حُجَّاجٌ.

They are pilgrims.


هُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ.

They are Muslims.

---------

الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ: B1.

(The attached pronoun) :

مَا أَسْمَاؤُهُمْ ؟

What are their names?


أَبْنَاؤُهُمْ فِي الْمَدْرَسَةِ.

Their sons are in the school.


أَبُوهُمْ إِمَامُ هذا الْْمَسْجِدِ.

Their father in the Imaam of this Mosque.

------------------------

الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ: B2.

(The attached pronoun) :

بَعْضُهُمْ مِنَ الصِّينِ،

Some of them are from China.


وَبَعْضُهُمْ مِنَ الْيَابَانِ.

And some of them are from Japan.


بَعْضُهُمْ فِي الْفَصْلِ،

Some of them are in the classroom.


وَبَعْضُهُمْ عِنْدَ الْمُدِيرِ.

And some of them are with the headmaster.

(End of extracts)

-------------------

مِنْهُمْ

from them

إِلَيْهِمْ

to them

لَهُمْ

for them

فِيهِمْ

amongst them

مَعَهُمْ

with them

بَيْنَهُمْ

between them

---------------

wassalaam

Abdul salaam
06-17-2010, 04:34 AM
السّلام عليكم

Referring to the my previous post, which I said that I find difficulty in translation of some sentence in lesson 18

Here is one other example.

فِي قَرْيَتِي مَسْجِدَانِ صَغِيْرَانِ

I know how to analize this insha allah, but still have some quastion about it also.

فِي: خَرْفْ جَرٍّ

Is this a قَرْيَةِ: إِسْم مَجْرُوَرٌ. ? مُضَافٌ

ي: يَاء الْمُتَكَّلَمْ. مُضَافُ إِلَيْهِ. ضَمِيْرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ

مَسْجِدَانِ: مَنْعُوْتٌ

صَغِيْرَانِ: نَعَتٌ

فِي قَرْيَةِ: جَارٌ وَجْرُورٌ شِبْهُ جُمْلَة خَبَرُ مُقَدَّمْ

مَسْجِدَانِ: مُبْتَدَأ مُؤَخَّر

ا: عَلاَ مَة رَفْعِهِ

Is my analysis correct.

Now when we translate it:

In my village two small mosque

This is the translation I can make, but in English its not a correct sentence.

Rather it should be “there are two small mosques in my village”

From which arabic word I can drive the phrase “there are” in the sentence
"فِي قَرْيَتِي مَسْجِدَانِ صَغِيْرَانِ"


Jasakallah hairan for all my answers

Aaishah
06-17-2010, 08:13 PM
wa ‘alaykumus salaam Brother,

Here are the translations to some of your previous queries :

فِي السَّنَةِ عِيْدَانِ

“In the year are two ‘Iids”

هُمَا عِيْدُ الفِطْر وَعِيْدُ الأَضْحَى ِ

“They are ‘Iidu l-Fitr, and ‘Iidu l-‘aDHaa”

كَمْ نَافِذَةً فِي غُرْفَتِكَ يَا إِسْمَاعِيْلُ؟

“How many windows are in your room O Ismaa’iil?”

فِيْهَا نَافِذَتَانِ

“In it are two windows”.

فِي قَرْيَتِي مَسْجِدَانِ صَغِيْرَانِ

“In my village are two small mosques.”

**************

Translating Arabic into another language such as English, is only a rough meaning of the Arabic, and not an exact, word-for-word equivalent of it. A literal, word-by-word translation of Arabic is not possible. This is why we read on the covers of the maSaaHif (copies of the Qur'aan), the following wording :

"Translation of the meanings of the Qur'aan".

So this is what we do - we translate the meaning only - not the literal wording - to allow the non-native reader of Arabic to understand the Arabic meaningfully in his own tongue.

If we did it literally - word-by-word, as you have tried, then the meanings will not make sense - as you're discovering.

This is why I have highlighted the word “are” in the above translations.

This is because with the word “are”, this is what these sentences mean in English. But in Arabic, there is no word equivalent to “is”/”are” in English.

The rule is mentioned by our Shaykh Abdur Rahim (HafiZahullaah) as follows :

Quote-------------------------------

“Arabic has no word corresponding to the English “is”.

- i.e. Arabic has no copular”.

Ref. Madinah Book 1, Key to Lesson 1.

End quote-----------------------------


*****************

فِي قَرْيَتِي مَسْجِدَانِ صَغِيْرَانِ

Your analysis is correct masha Allaah and covers some advanced material in Madinah Book 3.

Here are some minor refinements to note :


: فِي قَرْيَتِي

قَرْيَتِي = قَرْيَةِ + يْ

قَرْيَةِ :

اسمٌ مَجْرُورٌ بِ(في)، ... وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ،

ism majruur due to في

يْ :

ياءُ الْمُتَكَلِّمِ : ضَمِيرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ مَبْنِيٌّ على السُّكُونِ، في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ :

الْمُضَافُ إليهِ.

فِي قَرْيَتِي :

جَارٌّ و مَجْرُورٌ ، شِبْهُ جملةٍ ، في مَحَلِّ رَفْعٍ : الْخَبَرُ الْمُقَدَّمُ.

مَسْجِدَانِ:

الْْمُبْتَدَأُ الْْْمُؤَخَّرُ ، مَرْفُوعٌ ، وعلامةُ رفعِهِ :
الألفُ ، نِيَابَةً عَنِ الضَّمَّةِ لأنه الْمُثَنَّى ،

صَغِيْرَانِ:

نَعْتٌ لِ(مَسْجِدَانِ.


Hope this is helpful.

Wassalaam

Abdul salaam
06-22-2010, 04:27 AM
السّلام عليكم

Jazaakallah khairan for the answers
I would like to confirm whether my analysis and translation are correct:
Please correct me if I make a mistake.

This is from the lesson 19, exercise two

ثَمَنُه سَبْعَةُ رِيَالاَتٍ وَنِصْفٌ : Its price is 6 riyal and half.
ثَمَنُ: مُبْتَدَأ وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ
هُ: ضَمِيْرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ. مُضَافُ إِلَيْهِ
سَبْعَةُ:خَبَرُ وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ
رِيَالاَتٍ: مُضَافُ إِلَيْهِ
وَ: عَطَفٌ
نِصْفٌ: مَوْطُوْفٌ عَلَى ثَمَنُ

فِي هَذَا الْفَصْلِ عَشَرَةُ طُلاَّبٍ قُدَامَى وَأَرْبَعَةُ طُلاَّبٍ جُدٌدٌ: In this class are ten old students and four new students
فِي: خَرْفُ جَرٍّ
هّذَا:إِسْم مَجْرُورٌ.إِسْمُ ألإِشَارَاتِ لِلْقَرِيبٌ
فِي هَذَا: جَارٌمَجْرٌورٌ شِبْهُ جُمْلَة خَبَرٌ مُقَدَّم:
الْفَصْلِ: بَدَلٌ
عَشَرَةُ: مُبْتَدَأ مُؤخَرُ وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ
طُلاَّبٍ:مُضَافُ إِلَيْهِ
قُدَامَى: نَعَتٌ
وَأَرْبَعَةُ:مَوطُوفٌ عَلَى عَشَرَةُ. مُضَافٌ
طُلاَّبٍ: مُضَافُ إِلَيْهِ
جُدٌدٌ: نَعَتٌ

عِنْدِي أَرْبَعَةُ قُمْصَانٍ: I have four shirts
عِنْدِ: ظَرْفٌ- شِبْهُ جُمْلَة خَبَرٌ مُقَدَّم وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ
ي: ضَمِيْرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ. يَاء الْمُتَكَلِّمْ. مُضَافٌ إِلَيْهِ
أَرْبَعَةُ: مُبْتَدَأ مُؤخَرُ وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ
قُمْصَانٍ: مُضَافٌ إِلَيْهِ

عِنْدِي رِيَالاَنِ وَخَمْسَةُ قُرُوْشٍ: I have two riyal and five grush
عِنْدِ: ظَرْفٌ- شِبْهُ جُمْلَة خَبَرٌ مُقَدَّم وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ
ي: ضَمِيْرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ. يَاء الْمُتَكَلِّمْ. مُضَافٌ إِلَيْهِ
رِيَالاَنِ: مُبْتَدَأ مُؤَجَرٌ وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ
ا: عَلآمَة رِفْعِه
وَخَمْسَةُ: خَبَرٌ وَهُوَ مُضًافٌ
قُرُوْشٍ: مُضَافٌ إِلَيْهِ

والسّلام عليكم

Aaishah
06-25-2010, 09:04 PM
wa ‘alaykumus salaam

This is another very good analysis.

Please note the corrections in red.

I will add refinements (in black ink) to the analysis which will make it more precise. If you understand them, then you can use them to perfect your analysis. If not, then the terms are fully covered and practiced throughout the Madinah course.

The refinements will become more valuable to students as they progress further and deeper into grammatical analysis. One realises the importance of having such precise terms for the different grammar roles and elements since accordingly, the meanings of sentences - which are conveyed through such terms and analysis - become precise and clear.

Your analysis/translation is copied in blue ink.

--------------------------------------------------

“Its price is 6 riyal and half”

Its price is 7 and a half riyaals.

ثَمَنُهُ سبعةُ ريالاتٍ ونصفٌ :

ثَمَنُ : مُبْتَدَأ وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ

ثَمَنُ : الْمُبْتَدَأُ ، مَرْفُوعٌ، وَعَلاَمَةُ رَفْعِهِ : ضَمَّةٌ ظَاهِرَةٌ في آخِرِهِ، وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ.

هُ: ضَمِيْرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ. مُضَافُ إِلَيْهِ

الْهَاءُ : ضَمِيرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ، مَبْنِيٌّ على الضَّمَّةِ في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ، الْمُضَافُ إليهِ.

Damiirs that constitute a single Harf, are referred to by their name, and not by their letter-form.

So we say :

الْهَاءُ

We would not say : هُ


سَبْعَةُ:خَبَرُ وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ

سبعةُ : الخبرُ، مرفوعٌ وعلامةُ رفعِهِ ضمةٌ ظاهرةٌ في آخرِه، وهو مضافٌ.

رِيَالاَتٍ : مُضَافُ إِلَيْه

الْمُضَافُ إليه مَجْرُورٌ, وعلامةُ جَرِّهِ كسرةٌ ظاهرةٌ في آخرِهِ.

نِصْفٌ: مَوْطُوْفٌ عَلَى ثَمَنُ

نِصْفٌ This noun is not ma’Tuuf on “thamanu”.

فِي: خَرْفُ جَرٍّ

. حَرْفُ جرٍ

هّذَا:إِسْم مَجْرُورٌ.إِسْمُ ألإِشَارَاتِ لِلْقَرِيبٌ

هَذَا : اسمُ الإشارةِ ، مَبْنِيٌّ على السُّكُونِ في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ بِ(في).

We say “majruur” for a noun that shows a clear / primary kasrah, or an estimated kasrah.

But this ismu l-ishaarati is not showing a kasrah. It cannot show a kasrah (nor fathah or Dammah) because its ending is always fixed on sukuun.

Here is the sukuun :

هَذَاْْ

This fixed form of a noun’s ending, is termed : mabniyy.

A mabniyy noun that appears with a Harfu jarr before it, is described as :

“fii maHalli jarr” (in the place of jarr) due to في.

This term was explained in a simple way (reply # 10) here :

http://www.lqtoronto.com/forums/showthread.php?t=344


الْفَصْلِ: بَدَلٌ

الْفَصْلِ: بَدَلٌ مِنْ (هذا).

فِي هَذَا: جَارٌمَجْرٌورٌ شِبْهُ جُمْلَة خَبَرٌ مُقَدَّم

فِي هَذَا: شبهُ جُمْلَةٍ في مَحَلِّ رفعٍ : خبرٌ مُقَدَّمٌ.

عَشَرَةُ: مُبْتَدَأ مُؤخَرُ وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ

عَشَرَةُ : مُبْتَدَأٌ مُؤَخَّرٌ ، مرفوعٌ، وعلامةُ رفعِهِ ضمةٌ ظاهرةٌ في آخره وهو مضافٌ.

قُدَامَى: نَعَتٌ

قُدَامَى: نَعَتٌ لِ(طلابٍ)،

مَجْرُورٌ وعلامةُ جرِّه كسرةٌ مقدَّرةٌ في آخرِهِ.

جُدٌدٌ: نَعَتٌ

جُدٌدٍ : نَعَتٌ لِ(طلابٍ).

In the conversation the teacher says, vocalising the end harakah :

عشرةُ طلابٍ جُدُدٍ.

*************

ا: عَلآمَة رِفْعِه

Single letters of the Arabic alphabet are referred to by their name, and not their letter-form.

So here we would say :

الأَلِفُ.

We would not say : ا.

If we were doing our analysis orally, we would need to say "al-alif" ; we could not really say "a" as alif has no speech sound - it is always mabniyy 'alaa l-sukuun.

This reply is based on my understanding.

Hope it is helpful.

And Allaah Knows Best.

Wassalaam

Abdul salaam
06-26-2010, 03:42 PM
السّلام عليكم
May Allah reward you for you for this
Still I would like to ask more

1-Then what is “نِصْفٌ” – referring to your last reply
2- is بَلَدٌ (Country) is feminine word
3- could you analyze this and translate: سَيَّارَتِي لونها أخضر (from lesson 23, exercise 2, question:14)
4- Is all diptote definite

Aaishah
06-29-2010, 11:08 PM
السّلام عليكم
May Allah reward you for you for this
Still I would like to ask more

2- is بَلَدٌ (Country) is feminine word
3- could you analyze this and translate: سَيَّارَتِي لونها أخضر (from lesson 23, exercise 2, question:14)
4- Is all diptote definite

Wa ‘alaykumus salaam wa raHmatullaah

بَلَدٌ

The Hans Wehr dictionary mentions this word is masculine and feminine.

***********

سَيَّارَتِي لَوْنُهَا أَخْضَرُ.

Translation of the meaning :

“My car, its colour is green.”

الإعرابُ:

(سَيَّارَة) : الْمُبْتَدَأُ مَرْفُرعٌ وعلامةُ رفعهِ ضَمَّةٌ مُقَدَّرَةٌ على مَا قَبْلَ ياءِ الْمُتَكَلِّمِ، وهو مضافٌ.

(الياءُ): ضَمِيرٌ مُتّصِلٌ مَبْنِيٌّ على السُّكونِ في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ الْمُضَافُ إليه.

(لَوْنُهَا أَخْضَرُ) : جُمْلَةٌ اسْمِيَّةٌ في مَحَلِّ رَفْعٍ : خَبَرُ الْمُبْتَدَأِ.

The khabar of (سَيَّارَة) is a sentence.

The sentence is :(لَوْنُهَا أَخْضَرُ) .

So the khabar here, is not a single word - which we are more familiar with.

Example of a single-word khabar, for the same mubtada :

سَيَّارَتِي جَدِيدَةٌ.

“My car is new.”

Example of a whole sentence as khabar :

سَيَّارَتِي لَوْنُهَا أَخْضَرُ.

“My car, its colour is green.”

Since the khabar here is in the form of a jumlah - and the jumlah is another ismiyyah - it too has its own mubtada and khabar.

Here is where the mind needs to think more analytically :

لَوْنُ : الْْمُبتدأُ مرفوعٌ وعلامةُ رفعهِ ضمّةٌ ظاهرةٌ في آخره، وهو مضافٌ

هَاْ :.ضميرٌ متّصلٌ مَبْنِيٌّ على السّكونِ في مَحَلِّ جرٍّ المضافُ إليه، وهذا الضميرُ هو الرَّابِطُ بينَ الْمُبْتَدَأِ في القولِ (سيارة) وَيينَ خَبَرِهِ .

أخضرُ : خَبَرُ المبتدأِ الثاَّنِي في القولِ (لونُ) مرفوعٌ وعلامةُ رفعِهِ ضمّةٌ ظاهرةٌ في آخره.

And this jumlah highlighted in red above (not its parts), is counted as one unit - a khabar - for the first mubtada : سَيَّارَة.

سَيَّارَتِي لَوْنُهَا أَخْضَرُ

More practice of the khabar comprising a whole sentence, comes in Madinah Book 3.

It is very straight-forward.

************

Not all diptotes are definite.

In Madinah Book 1, lesson 22 – straight after the conversation, a comprehensive list of various diptotes is given.

The ones that are definite are the Proper Nouns - like names of people and places.

e.g. names of people,

خَدِيجَةُ

عائشةُ

أَحْمَدُ

e.g. names of places ,

مَكَّةُ

باكستانُ

The ones that are indefinite are other than the Proper Nouns.

e.g. indefinite diptotes from the list :

كسلانُ

lazy

أسودُ

black

علماءُ

scholars

مساجدُ

mosques

Wassalaam

أبو سليمان
06-30-2010, 12:49 AM
السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته ,

ما شاء الله تبارك الله , ما أحسنَ إعراب

و لكني أريد أن أزيد على ذلك بارك الله فيكم


أما الكلمة "سَيَّارَتِي : فإعرابها كما سنرى إن شاء الله

سَيَّارَتِي , مبتدأٌ مرفوعٌ و علامة رفعه ضمة مقدرة على ما قبل ياء المتكلم , منع من ظهورها اشتغال المحل بحركة مناسبةٍ , يعني : الكسرة التي على تاء المفتوحة تناسب ياءَ المتكلم , و هذا السبب الذي قد تغيّر مِن الضمة الظاهرة إلى الكسرة الظاهرة --- الله تعالى أعلمُ


تنبيهٌ و فائدةٌ : اقرأو الكتاب "الدرة البهية على شرح متممة الآجرومية للشيخ النحوي أحمد بن ثابت الوصابي " على هذا الرابط http://www.rimarket.net/product-p/al0013h.htm

Aaishah
07-01-2010, 10:47 PM
السّلام عليكم
may allah reward you for you for this
still i would like to ask more

1-then what is “نِصْفٌ” – referring to your last reply


وعليكم السلام

(ثَمَنُهُ سَبْعَةُ ريالاتٍ وَنِصْفٌ) :

إعرابُ كَلِمَةِ (نِصْف) :

مَعْطُوفٌ على (سَبْعَة).

أي: ثَمَنُهُ سَبْعَةُ ريالاتٍ وَثَمَنُهُ نِصْفٌ.

******************

أَشْكُرُكَ أباَ سُلَيْمَانَ عَلَى الزِّيَادَةِ وَالرَّابِطِ.
كَتَبْتَ: (اقرأو الكتاب )
وَالصَّوَابُ : (اقْرَؤُوا الكتاب)
هَمْزَةُ الْقَطْعِ تُكْتَبُ عَلَى الْوَاوِ هنا ، وَلابدَّ مِن أَلِفِ الْوِقَايَةِ في آخِرِ الفعلِ هنا .
وَفِيكَ بَارَكَ اللهُ.
والسلام عليكم ورحمةُ اللهِ.

Abdul salaam
07-05-2010, 04:02 AM
السّلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

I would like to ask about analysis
ذَهَبَ اِلَي الْمَدْرَسَة He went to the school.

ذَهَبَ: فِعْلٌ,
فَاعِلٌ: مُسْتَتِرٌ, تَقْدِيْرُهُ هُوَ
إِلَي الْمَدْرَسَة: جَارٌوَمَجْرٌورٌ شِبْهُ جُمْلَة

Is my Above analysis correct

Aaishah
07-05-2010, 12:32 PM
وعليكم السلام ورحمةُ اللهِ وبركاته

ذَهَبَ إلى الْمَدْرَسَةِ :

الإعرابُ:
ذَهَبَ : فِعْلٌ مَاضٍ مَبْنِيٌّ على الْْفَتْحَةِ.
وَالْفَاعِلُ : ضَمِيرٌ مُسْتَتِرٌ (جَوَازاً) تَقْدِيرُهُ : هُوَ.

إلى الْمَدْرَسَةِ :

Lexically, ilaa is a Harfu jarr.

And this noun : الْمَدْرَسَةِ is grammatically ism majruur. You are right here.

But additionally, this jaarr and majruur together, have another grammatical role here in light of the verb and faa'il in : ذَهَبَ

How to analyse a jaarr/majruur which is always used along with a verb, is studied in Madinah Book 3. The understanding is built on other knowledge which you will be covering in Madinah Book 2 first, insha Allaah.

والسلام

Mazhar
07-05-2010, 06:00 PM
فِي قَرْيَتِي مَسْجِدَانِ صَغِيْرَانِ

“In my village are two small mosques.”

Your analysis is correct masha Allaah and covers some advanced material in Madinah Book 3.

Here are some minor refinements to note :


: فِي قَرْيَتِي

قَرْيَتِي = قَرْيَةِ + يْ

قَرْيَةِ :

اسمٌ مَجْرُورٌ بِ(في)، ... وَهُوَ مُضَافٌ،

ism majruur due to في

يْ :

ياءُ الْمُتَكَلِّمِ : ضَمِيرٌ مُتَّصِلٌ مَبْنِيٌّ على السُّكُونِ، في مَحَلِّ جَرٍّ :

الْمُضَافُ إليهِ.

فِي قَرْيَتِي :

جَارٌّ و مَجْرُورٌ ، شِبْهُ جملةٍ ، في مَحَلِّ رَفْعٍ : الْخَبَرُ الْمُقَدَّمُ.

مَسْجِدَانِ:

الْْمُبْتَدَأُ الْْْمُؤَخَّرُ ، مَرْفُوعٌ ، وعلامةُ رفعِهِ :
الألفُ ، نِيَابَةً عَنِ الضَّمَّةِ لأنه الْمُثَنَّى ،

صَغِيْرَانِ:

نَعْتٌ لِ(مَسْجِدَانِ.

Asslamo Alaikum,

The sentence is inverted one, perhaps being compulsory in view of Subject being indefinite. Since "Predicate" is جَارٌّ و مَجْرُورٌ there is a presumed verb omitted and جَارٌّ و مَجْرُورٌ is related to that verb. So the information about existence, presence-availability of two small mosques is built in the sentence, which can be reflected by "are". Keeping in view the inverted order of the sentence, may be it is more appropriate to translate like "There are two small mosques in my village/locality".

Thanks.

Aaishah
07-11-2010, 10:40 PM
Asslamo Alaikum,

The sentence is inverted one, perhaps being compulsory in view of Subject being indefinite. Since "Predicate" is جَارٌّ و مَجْرُورٌ there is a presumed verb omitted and جَارٌّ و مَجْرُورٌ is related to that verb. So the information about existence, presence-availability of two small mosques is built in the sentence, which can be reflected by "are". Keeping in view the inverted order of the sentence, may be it is more appropriate to translate like "There are two small mosques in my village/locality".

Thanks.

وعليكم السلام ورحمةُ اللهِ

في قَرْيَتِي مَسْجِدانِ صَغِيرَانِ

‘There are two small mosques in my village.’

Your translation above, is better than mine, based on the translation our Shaykh Dr. Abdur Rahim gave, of the following two sentences of similar grammatical composition :

From Madinah Book 3, Key to L. 11 :

في الْغُرْفَةِ رَجُلٌ.

‘There is a man in the room.’

تَحْتَ الْمَكْْتَبِ سَاعَةٌ.

‘There is a watch under the table’.

جزاكَ اللهُ خيراً

والسلام.

Mazhar
07-12-2010, 09:16 AM
Assalamo Alaikum,

Thanks. A similar sentence from 2:10 of Grand Qur'aan

فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ

There is a disease [varying personality/psychological disorder-envy, jealousy, malice, rancour] secreted/nurtured in their hearts,

Each individual in this group of people can have a different sort of disease which is reflected by indefinite noun, in keeping with the ground reality.